Acute lymphocytic leukemia is actually an abnormality of the white blood cells where the bone marrow starts overproducing lymphocytes which are not fully developed and appear as immature in an uncoordinated fashion in the circulating blood. It is a true malignant neoplasm where survival is less than 6 months because of its rapidly progressive nature/acute. It occurs in children with an age less than 15 years.
It happens when the normal hematopoietic process of the bone marrow gets disturbed by replacement of these cells by the early lymphoid precursor's proliferation. Certain risk factors also cause it:
Syndromes such as down syndrome
Petechiae and ecchymosis
Generalized swelling of the lymph nodes
Spleen, kidney becomes enlarged
Hemorrhages are common due to a decrease in platelets.
Pain in your bones and joints
Skin looks paler than normal.
Rapid loosening of the tooth due to the destruction of the alveolar bone.
Bone marrow test
Cytochemical stains –PAS positive
INDUCTION OF REMISSION – vincristine, L-asparaginase, daunorubicin, oral prednisolone, methotrexate.
CHEMOTHERAPY: to destroy cancer cells by using anti-cancer drugs like doxorubicin, asparaginase, methotrexate, cytarabine
STEM CELL OR BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTS: it is the best and effective treatment done during the second remission to reconstitute the hematopoietic system by giving high doses of chemotherapy and total body irradiation. It kills the leukemic cells and healthy stem cells in the bone marrow to make space for the donor stem cells.
CORTICOSTEROIDS: such as prednisolone, dexamethasone can be used.