Liver spots also known as senile lentigines are splotches of skin discoloration with increasing age and sunlight exposure. They are most prevalent during the old age and the color discoloration range is from brown to reddish red.
As the name suggests liver spots, remember the cause is not due to liver or any liver disease!
Due to aging and constant UV radiation exposure, age spots change in shape and color. The histopathophysiology is that when we age, the aged cells that contain lipofuscin bodies cannot be removed and it disturbs the neighboring cells by promoting their aging at the same time and they start accumulating and will form an irregular shape with an increase in melanin production due to UV radiation and will be seen as dark spots. Other causes include deficiency of vitamin c which acts as a protective agent for skin against harmful UV rays.
Physical examination by the dermatologist by inspecting the size, shape, and color of the spots for visual diagnosis. To confirm the diagnosis, a skin biopsy is must to differentiate it from other melanomas.