Allergies occur when a person’s immune system reacts to allergens/substances in the environment that can be harmless and are found in dust mites, pets, pollen, insects, ticks, molds, foods, and certain medications.


A particular antibody called immunoglobin (IgE) causes allergy. Antibodies are released to destroy foreign bodies or any harmful substance entering the body. During this process, IgE is released with the production of chemicals such as histamine which causes obstruction of the airways by tightening the muscle wall of the airways and blood vessels and causes the lining mucosa of the nose to produce mucus that causes the allergy.


Depending upon the type of the allergen and the portal entry, the type of allergy can be divided as follows:

  • CONJUNCTIVITIS: itchy and watery eyes, the sensation of burning, redness in the eyes.
  • RHINITIS: nasal itching, continued sneezing, nasal obstruction, nasal drip/rhinorrhea, stuffy nose.
  • ALLERGIC ASTHMA: cough with or without expectoration, suffocation, wheezing, breathing difficulties.
  • ATOPIC DERMATITIS: Rash on the skin, especially in children.
  • URTICARIA: swellings or wheel flare, itching with a skin rash.
  • ANGIOEDEMA: swelling of the eyelids, lips or limbs
  • CONTACT DERMATITIS: Includes rash on the skin that comes in contact with the allergen.
  • ANAPHYLAXIS: certain medications, insects and foods may trigger the allergy symptoms like diarrhea, vomiting which gets aggravated by hypotension.


  • A doctor will ask for symptoms mentioned above and will inspect the skin for rashes with past medical family history for allergies and the cause or the specific allergen behind it.
  • Blood tests
  • Skin prick test
  • Patch test


  • ANTIHISTAMINES: such as cetirizine can help in reducing the allergic symptoms.
  • CORTICOSTEROIDS: can be given I.V at first to boost the immune system for rapid reversal of the allergic symptoms by reducing swelling and other symptoms.
  • DECONGESTANTS: can restore sinus drainage, runny nose, nasal congestion.
  • ALLERGY SHOTS: given to people who have persistent and disruptive allergy symptoms. They do not treat symptoms rather they alter the immune response by preventing the further reactions which are known as immunotherapy.
  • PROBIOTICS: studies have shown that it can be quite effective by introducing the live microorganisms that can be beneficial to the body to treat atop dermatitis in infants.

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