What is the function of the red blood cell?
Red blood cells deliver oxygen to various tissues of the body. Hemoglobin is a respiratory pigment present in the red blood cells. It carries oxygen to the tissues and carries CO2 from the tissues to the lungs. It consists of basic protein – globin and an iron -porphyrin complex -haem. A rise in the red cell concentration of 2,3 DPG, an intermediate product of glucose metabolism, occurs in anemia and hypoxia.
CAUSE FOR COMMON TYPES OF ANEMIA:
- IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA: is due to low store of iron or deficiency of iron in the body. the main cause is due to increased blood loss, increased demands, inadequate dietary intake and decreased absorption.
- ANEMIA OF THE CHRONIC DISEASE: occurs in patients of chronic infections such as endocarditis, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, SLE, malignant disease and cause is due to non-mobilization of iron from the bone marrow, with the resulting iron gets stuck up in the marrow and is not available for the haemoglobination of the developing red cells.
- SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA: is the type of anemia where sideroblasts are present in large number due to hereditary or acquired condition.
- MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA: these are macrocytic anemias with megaloblasts in the bone marrow due to deficiency of either vitB12 or folic acid.
- PERNICIOUS ANEMIA: is due to failure of secretion of the intrinsic factor by the stomach to digest the extrinsic factor and the cause is autoimmune antibodies to intrinsic factor.
- HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA is abnormal excessive destruction of red cells that overwhelms the compensatory capacity of the bone marrow caused due to intra-corpuscular and extra-corpuscular defects.
- THALASSEMIA: are genetically transmitted disorders of the reduced rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin polypeptide chains.
- APLASTIC ANEMIA: is a failure of the stem cells to a varying degree producing hypoplasia of the bone marrow elements which is caused due to idiopathic or secondary causes.
- Chronic diarrhea
- Chronic infections
- Chronic bloodless
- Pallor of skin, mucous membrane, tongue, conjunctiva
- Weight loss
- Personality changes
- Mental disorientation
- Loss of libido
- Angina in older patients
- Throbbing in head and ears
- Hemoglobin count
- Red cell count
- MCV, MCHC count
- Reticulocyte count
- WBC count
- Platelet count
- Blood film
- Bone marrow
- Serum iron
- Serum ferritin
- IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA: includes oral iron therapy like ferrous sulfate tablets and parenteral iron therapy that includes iron sorbitol and iron dextran.
- MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA: Hydroxocobalamin parenterally with 5mg of folic acid once a week.
- HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA: splenectomy with blood transfusion.
- THALASSEMIA: transfusion to maintain hemoglobin between 8-10mg/dl by desferrioxamine.
- HYPOPLASTIC ANEMIA: blood transfusion, antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, ALG, cyclosporine