Aortic Valve Dissection

It occurs whenever there is an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta causing the blood flow to cause the layers in between to force apart from each other and due to this reason it also causes decreased blood supply to other organs. It can lead to death due to rupture of the aorta, so it can be really fatal if not treated on time.

Cause oF Aortic Valve Dissection:

Various causes include:

  • Hypertension
  • Vasculitis
  • Drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine
  • Smoking
  • Bicuspid aortic valve disease
  • Connective tissue disorders - Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • Polyarteritis, giant cell arteritis, Behcet disease

Risk Factors: Aortic Valve Dissection:

  • High blood pressure
  • Marfan syndrome
  • Turner syndrome
  • Major trauma
  • Heart surgery
  • Smoking
  • Hereditary vascular disease
  • Inflammatory vasculitis
  • Deceleration trauma

Symptoms oF Aortic Valve Dissection:

  • Sharp tearing, stabbing pain sensation in the chest and back.
  • Vomiting
  • Fainting
  • High blood pressure
  • Sweating
  • Light-headedness
  • Aortic rupture

Diagnosis oF Aortic Valve Dissection:

  • CT-scan
  • MRI
  • TEE
Treatment oF Aortic Valve Dissection:
  • SURGICAL: STANDFORD TYPE A (ASCENDING AORTIC DISSECTION) AND STANFORD TYPE B (DISTAL AORTIC DISSECTIONS): is done to remove the most severely damaged segments of the aorta and to obliterate the entry of blood into false lumen.
  • OTHER SURGICAL TREATMENT: open aortic surgery, David procedure, the thoracic endovascular aortic repair will depend on which segment is involved.
  • MEDICATIONS: include B blockers, calcium channel blockers for controlling emergency hypertension.

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