It is a failure of the stem cells that produce hypoplasia of the bone marrow elements. It can be primary or secondary. Males are affected more than females.


  • Primary (idiopathic): the cause is still unknown but the cause is thought to be due to autoimmune due to even congenital or gene mutation.
  • Secondary: can occur due to various causes such as certain drugs like methotrexate, busulfan and idiosyncratic cause such as sulfa drugs, chloramphenicol and due to toxic chemicals and infections such as viral hepatitis, AIDS, etc.

Symptoms and signs:

  • Bleeding occurs in the skin , mucous membrane and other tissues.
  • Necrotic mouth ulcers, infections
  • Epistaxis
  • Haematuria
  • Intracranial bleed
  • Lymphadenopathy
  • Anemia


  • Blood count
  • Blood film
  • Bone marrow aspiration
  • Blood transfusion is done to compensate for blood loss.
  • Removal of infections can be done by antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporins after culture and sensitivity.
  • Allogenic bone transplantation is done in patients less than 40 years of age.
  • For older patients, immunosuppressive therapy with antilymphocyte globulin and cyclosporine is quite effective.

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