It is a focal disease of arterial intima. The vessels that are commonly involved are coronary, cerebral and peripheral vessels. It is the collection of abnormal fat, cells and debris from the atherosclerotic plaques, which develops at irregular rates in different segments of epicardial coronary arteries and leave to narrowing of the coronary artery.

Cause oF Arteriosclerosis:

The main cause is the thrombus formation by fatty streaks that develop and migrate it into intima, take up the oxidized LDL from the plasma and become fat-laden foam cells and due to death of these cells, intimal lipid pooling occurs outside the cell and it leads to further migration of smooth cells there , it encroaches the lumen of the vessel and finally it becomes a mature plaque and it becomes prone to fissuring, hemorrhage, and thrombosis and finally the plaque ruptures that leads to occlusion of the vessel and leads to ischemia.

Risk Factors oF Arteriosclerosis:

  • Old age
  • Males
  • Smoking, alcohol
  • Hypertension
  • Mental stress
  • Hypercholesterolaemia
  • Low HDL levels
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Obesity
  • Low levels of vitamin C, E, A

Symptoms oF Arteriosclerosis:

  • Chest pain
  • Pain referred to the arms, legs
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty in speech and eye-sight

Diagnosis oF Arteriosclerosis:

  • Physical examination
  • Blood test
  • EKG
  • Electrocardiography
Treatment oF Arteriosclerosis:
  • Medication:
    • Include ACE inhibitors, antiplatelet drugs to treat underlying conditions like high cholesterol.
    • Complete abstinence from triggers such as smoking, alcohol.
  • Surgery:
    • ANGIOPLASTY: and stent placement into the blocked artery by placing a catheter first then deflated balloon is passed through the narrow catheter and it is then inflated to prevent narrowing of the artery again.
    • CORONARY BYPASS SURGERY: to create a new path for blood to reach to the heart.
    • ENDARTERECTOMY: causes surgical removal of the plaque from the blocked artery.
    • THROMBOLYSIS: to break the thrombus by using I.V. clot-dissolving medications.

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